Studienlage: Neuro-elektrische Stimulation

Neuro-elektrische Stimulation (NES), Neuro-elektrische Therapie (NET)

Studienlage: Neuro-elektrische Stimulation

Es gibt zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Studien, welche die Wirksamkeit von Neuro-elektrischer Stimulation (NES) beziehungsweise der Anwendung bei bestimmten Erkrankungen (Neuro-elektrische Therapie, NET) belegen. Je nach vorliegender Erkrankung oder nach vorliegendem Einsatzgebiet ist die Studienlage dabei unterschiedlich umfassend.
Zur Untersuchung der Wirksamkeit von Neuro-elektrischer Therapie (NET) bei akuten Depressionen konnten im Jahr 2014 von der sehr renommierten Cochran Kollaboration zum Beispiel alleine 270 Studien zu diesem Einsatzgebiet geprüft werden. Zu den Hauptanwendungsgebieten Schmerztherapie, Depressionen, Angststörungen, Schlafstörungen, Stressreduktion, PTBS und Suchterkrankungen liegen insgesamt zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Studien unterschiedlicher Qualität vor.
Bei einigen dieser Studien, insbesondere denen älteren Datums, wird das nicht-einhalten bestimmter moderner Qualitätskriterien bemängelt. Insgesamt gibt es für den Einsatz der NES bzw. NET in einigen Einsatzbereichen ein gute Evidenz, auch wenn noch weiterer Forschungsbedarf besteht. Im Rahmen der modernen Pharmakotherapie steht eine Forschung auf diesem alternativen Gebiet allerdings leider momentan unbedingt nicht im Fokus des Interesses.
Somit ist der Einsatz dieses Therapieverfahrens wissenschaftlich wesentlich besser belegt als der Einsatz von Homöopathie und Akupunktur. Im Folgenden finden Sie eine Auswahl an wissenschaftlichen Studien zur Neuro-elektrischen Therapie (NES) aufgelistet:



Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien

1 Hill N. The effects of alpha stimulation on induced anxiety. Digital Commons @ ACU, Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 2015; Paper 6.
2. Lu L and Hu J. A Comparative study of anxiety disorders treatment with paroxetine in combination with cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy. Medical Innovation of China. 2014; 11(08): 080-082.
3. Lee IH, Seo EJ and Lim IS. Effects of aquatic exercise and CES treatment on the changes of cognitive function, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF of persons with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Exercise Nutrition and Biochemistry. 2014; 18(1): 19-24.
4. Barclay TH and Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164: 171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013.
5. Lee SH, Kim WY, Lee CH, Min TJ, Lee YS and Kim JH. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety, pain and endocrine response. Journal of International Medical Research, November 21, 2013.
6. Taylor AG, Anderson JG, Riedel SL, Lewis JE, Kinser PA and Bourguignon C. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013; 14(4): 327-335.
7. Kolesos ON, Osionwo HO and Akkhigbe. The role of relaxation therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria. ISOR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(4): 51-57.
8. Amr M, El-Wasify M, Elmaadawi A, Roberts J and El-Mallakn R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of chronically symptomatic bipolar patients. Journal of ECT. 2013; 29(2): 31-32.
9. Lande RG and Gragnani C. Efficacy of cranial electric stimulation for the treatment of insomnia: A randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2013; 21(1): 8-13.
10. Taylor AG, Anderson JG, Riedel S, Lewis JE and Bourguignon C. A randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia. Explore. 2013; 9(1): 32-40.
11. Tan G, Rintala D, Jensen MP, Richards JS, Holmes SA, Parachuri R, Lashgari-Saegh S and Price LR. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2011; 34(3): 285-296.
12. Shultz JC. The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on attention: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled investigation. Doctoral dissertation. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2010; 106 pages.
13. Rintala DH, Tan G, Willson P, Bryant MS and Lai ECH. Feasibility of using cranial electrotherapy stimulation for pain in persons with Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinson’s Disease. 2010; 8 pages.
14. Strentzsch JA. An examination of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on alpha-amylase levels, cortisol levels and state-trait anxiety scores in the chronically mentally ill. Doctoral dissertation, Saint Mary’s University, San Antonio, Texas. 2008; 121 pages. Poster Presentation at the International Society of Neurotherapy and Research 17th Annual Conference, Indiananapolis, Indiana, September 4, 2009.
15. Mellen RR and Mackey W. Reducing sheriff’s officers’ symptoms of depression using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a controlled experimental study. The Correctional Psychologist. 2009; 41(1): 9-15.
16. Mellen RR and Mackey W. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study. American Jails. 2008; 22(5): 32-38.
17. Kim HJ, Kim WY, Lee YS, Chang MS, Kim JH and Park YCl. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety and hemodynamic responses. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 55(6): 657- 661.
18. Tan G, Rintala DH, Thornby J, Yang J, Wade W and Vasilev C. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(4): 461-474.
19. Cork RC, Wood P, Ming N, Clifton S, James E and Price L. The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on pain associated with fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 8(2).
21. Schroeder MJ and Barr RE. Quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Clinical
Neurophysiology. 2001; 112: 2075-2083. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin. 1999, 191 pages.
22. Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K and Slauterbeck J. The effect of microcurrent stimulation on postoperative pain after patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, June 2000.
23. Winick RL. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice. General Dentistry. 1999; 47(1): 50-55.
24. Heffernan M. The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine. 1997; 4(10): 4-11.
25. Heffernan M. Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science. 1996; 31(3): 202-209. VorisMDandGoodS.Treatingsexualoffendersusingcranialelectrotherapystimulation.MedicalScopeMonthly.1996;3(11):14-18.
27. Voris MD. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute Newsletter, Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas, 1995.
28. Heffernan M. The effect of a single cranial electrotherapy stimulation on multiple stress measures. The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 1995; 147: 60-64.
29. Overcash SJ and Siebenthall A. The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and multisensory cognitive therapy on the personality and anxiety levels of substance abuse patients. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1989; 6(2): 105-111.
30. Zimmerman SI and Lerner FN. Biofeedback and electromedicine reduce the cycle of pain-spasm-pain in low back patients. Medical Electronics, 1989; 117: 108-120.
31. Roth PM and Thrash WJ. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1986; 90(2): 132-138.
32. Brotman P. Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the efficacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting reflex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1989; 6(5): 120-123.
33. Gibson TH and O’Hair DE. Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients. American Journal of Electromedicine. 1987; 4(1): 18-21.

Open Clinical Trials

MellenRR,CaseJandRuizDJ.Cranialelectrotherapystimulationasatreatmentforreducingstressandimprovingprefrontalcortex functioning in victims of domestic violence. International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology Newsletter. 2016; 48(3): 12-15.

37. Holubec JT. Cumulative response from cranial electrotherapy stimulation for chronic pain. Practical Pain Management. 2009; 9(9): 80-83.
38. Eidelman WS. Control of cigarette cravings with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. The Townsend Letter for Doctors. 2009; 311(6): 81-85.
39. Bystritsky A, Kerwin L and Feusner J. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69: 412-417.
40. Lee TK, Lee KS, Jeun SS, Hong YK, Park CK, Ki J and Kim MC. The control of chronic pain using microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, April 14, 2004.
41. Kulkarni AD. The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2001; 2(2): 99-102.
42. Overcash SJ. A retrospective study to determine the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on patients suffering from anxiety disorders, American Journal of Electromedicine. 1999; 16(1): 49-51.

Technische Studien

43. Smith RB and Shiromoto FN. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to block fear perception in phobic patients. Journal of Current Therapeutic Research. 1992; 51(2): 249-253.
Mechanistic Articles
44. Qiao J, Weng S, Wang P, Long J and Wang Z. Normalization of intrinsic neural circuits governing Tourette’s Syndrome using cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2015; 62(5): 1272-1280.
45. Feusner JD, Madsen S, Moody TD, Bohon C, Hembacher E, Bookheimer SY and Bystritsky A. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on resting state brain activity. Brain and Behavior. 2012; 2(3): 211-20.
46. Feusner J, Moody T, Hembacher E, Madsen S, Bookheimer S and Bystritsky A. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on brain activity in the resting state. Poster presented at the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit (NCDEU) 2010 50th Anniversary Meeting: Learning from the Past to Advance the Future of Mental Health Treatment. Co-sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology (ASCP). Boca Raton, Florida. June 14 – June 17, 2010.
47. Bystritsky A, Moody T, Hembacher E, Hoffman J, Moller H and Feusner J. Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on brain activity in the resting state. Poster presented at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), Hollywood, Florida, December 8, 2009.
48. BystritskyA.Currentandfutureofotherbrainstimulatingtechniques,anfMRIstudyofAlpha-StimCESinthetrack:NewTechniquesof Neuromodulation. Presented at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, May 19, 2009.
49. Kennerly RC. Changes in quantitative EEG and low resolution tomography following cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Doctoral dissertation, the University of North Texas. 529 pp., 81 tables, 233 figures, 171 references, 2006.
50. Kennerly RC. QEEG analysis of cranial electrotherapy: a pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2004; (8)2: 112-113. Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation Annual Conference, Houston, Texas, September 18-21, 2003.
Liu Y and Zhang G. qEEG Study on the treatment of ADHD with CES. Chinese Journal of Clinicians. 2011; 5(8): 2462-2463.
Tan G, Dao TK, Smith DL, Robinson A and Jensen MP. Incorporating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to expand
psychological services to veterans suffering from chronic pain. Psychological Services. 2010; 7(3): 148–161.

Case Series and Case Reports

51. Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy to Treat Behavioral Health Symptoms in a Combat Operational Setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412.
52. Rickabaugh K, Johnson T, Martin S, Jones C and Onifer D. A Retrospective review of patient perception of Alpha-Stimulation treatment. Poster presented at The Military Health System Symposium in Kissimmee, Florida. 2016; August 15-18.
53. Keizer B, Sposato L and Yancosek K. A progressive treatment for a chronic progressive disease: the war against complex regional pain syndrome. The Pain Practitioner. 2016; 6(1): 26-31.
54. Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: treatment of pain and headache in the military population. Practical Pain Management. 2015; 15(8): 57-64.
55. Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA and Platoni KT. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, and depression: US military service members and veterans self reports. The Army Medical Department Journal. 2014: (4):46-54.
56. Kirsch DL, Price LR, Nichols F, Marksberry JA, Platoni KT. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, PTSD, insomnia and depression: US military service members and veterans self reports. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Psychiatry; co-sponsored by the Chinese Medical Association, Psychiatry Branch of the Chinese Medical Association and the Nanjing Brain Hospital. October 18-21, 2012 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.
57. Bracciano AG, Chang WP, Kokesh S, Martinez A, Meier M and Moore K. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study of two military veterans. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2012; 16(1): 60-69.
58. Johnson M, Bodenhamer-Davis E and Bailey L. Neurofeedback, cranial electrotherapy stimulation and microcurrent electrical stimulation to treat tinnitus: a case series. Poster presented at Helping the Brain Help Us, the 18th Annual meeting of the International Society for Neurotherapy and Research, Denver, Colorado, September 29-October 3, 2010.
59. Annibali,Joseph.CaseoftheWeek:Jeff–BipolarDisorderandMore.Publishedonlineat,April 22, 2010.
60. Bracciano AG, Kokesh S, Martinez A, Meier M and Moore K. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Poster presented at Creighton University St. Albert’s Day, Omaha, Nebraska, March 31, 2009.
61. Mellen RR and Mitchell S. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: a case study. The Correctional Psychologist. 2008; 40(4): 4-8.
62. Childs A and Price L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in violent neuropsychiatric patients. Primary Psychiatry. 2007;
14(3): 50-56.
63. Childs A. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in a violent retarded population: a preliminary report. The Journal of
Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2005; 17(4): 548-551.
64. Overcash S. The effect of ROSHI protocol and cranial electrotherapy stimulation on a 9-year-old anxious, dyslexic male with attention
deficit disorder: a case study. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2005; 9(2): 63-77.
65. Plotnick SE. Finding hope: Alpha-Stim 100 may help clinicians yield better fibromyalgia treatment results. Advance for Directors in
Rehabilitation. May 2005; p 82.
66. Frick A. Microcurrent electrical therapy heals a recalcitrant wound in a horse. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2005; 25(10): 418-422.
Presented at Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas, February 24, 2005
67. Smith RB. Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective. American Journal of Pain Management,
2001; 11(2): 62-66.
68. Clark N, Mills D and Marchant J. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January 2000.
69. Alpher EJ and Kirsch DL. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management. 1998; 8(4): 124-128.
70. Bauer W. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Archives of Otolaryngology. 1983; 109(6): 382-383.

Review Articles, Meta-Analyses and Books

71. Ryall, Jo-Ellyn. FDA Moving Toward CES Neuromodulation Approval for Home Use: Are We Ready? Missouri Psychiatry. First Quarter- 2017: 3.
72. O’Hara, Christiane and Putnam, Helen (Netta). Sleep: the Missing Link. Sleep Assessment and Interventions for Combat Veterans with Disrupted Sleep. Combat Stress; 6(1): 3-18.
73. Scarff, Jonathan R. When to consider cranial electrotherapy stimulation for patients with PTSD. Current Psychiatry. 2017; 16(2): 27-28.
74. Moehringer J and Knabe MB. Transdermal electrical neurostimulation therapies in psychiatry: A review of the evidence. Psychiatric Annals.
2016; 46(10): 589-593.
75. Kirsch DL and Marksberry JA. The evolution of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, insomnia, depression and pain and Its
potential for other indications. Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine, 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 2015; 189-211.
76. Libretto S, Hilton L, Gordon S, and Zhang W. Effects of integrative PTSD treatment in a military health setting. Energy Psychology. 2015;
7(2): 33-44.
77. Anderson JG, Kebaish SA, Lewis JE and Taylor AG. Effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in regions of the basal ganglia in
individuals with fibromyalgia. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2014; 20(3): 206-207.
78. Horowitz S. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2013;
19(4): 188-193.
79. Kirsch DL and Nichols F. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression and insomnia. Psychiatric Clinics of North
America; 2013; 36(1): 169-176.

80. Novakovic V, Sher L, Lapidus KAB, Mindes J, Golier JA and Yehuda R. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Pyschotraumatology. 2011; 2: 5609.


82. Holleran-Steiker, Lori K, Machemehl-Helmly P, Clements T and Earthman B. New and promising technologies in the field of addiction
recovery: highlights of emerging benefits. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. 2010; 10(4): 331-338.
83. Zaghi S, Acar M, Hultgren B, Boggio PS and Felipe F. Noninvasive brain stimulation with low-intensity electrical currents: putative mechanisms of action for direct current and alternating current stimulation. Neuroscientist. December, 2010; 16(3): 285-307. Note: The authors incorrectly classify the Alpha-Stim with a group of AC devices (it is actually a bipolar DC). Then they state that the effects may be highly dependent on the specific parameters of stimulation, so every device should have its own research, which we completely agree with.
84. Mellen RR. and Gillilan J. Inmate Violence, Officer Protection and CES. Southern Concourse. 28, Summer 2009
85. Emdin L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). Natural Therapies. 2009; 49(6): 114-116.
86. Kirsch DL. CES for mild traumatic brain injury. Practical Pain Management. 2008; 8(6): 70-77.
87. FarinaWoodburyMA.Efectodelamicrocorrientesobresíntomas,deansiedad,depresión,insomnioydolor.Galanus.2008;1(5):15-18.
88. Kirsch DL and Gilula MF. CES in the treatment of pain-related disorders. Practical Pain Management. 2008; 8(3): 12-25.
89. Kirsch DL and Gilula MF. CES in the treatment of insomnia: a review and meta-analysis. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(8): 30-43.
90. Tan G and Jensen MP. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment. In Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Management: a Guidebook for Program Development and Excellence of Treatment. Schatman and Campbell (editors), Taylor and Francis, 2007; 75-99.
91. Gilula MF. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia. Expert Review of Devices. 2007; 4(4): 489-495.
92. Kirsch DL and Gilula M. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – Part 1. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(4):
93. Kirsch DL and Gilula M. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression – Part 2. Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(5):
94. Kirsch DL and Gilula M. A review and meta-analysis of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders – Part 1.
Practical Pain Management. 2007; 7(2): 40-47.
95. Kirsch DL and Gilula M. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders: statistical considerations – Part 2. Practical
Pain Management. 2007; 7(3): 22-39.
96. Tan G, Alverez Julie A and Jensen MP. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in pain management. Journal of Clinical
Psychology: In Session. 2006; 62(11): 1419-1431.
97. KirschDL.Cranialelectrotherapystimulationinthetreatmentoffibromyalgia.PracticalPainManagement.2006;6(6):60-64.
98. Kirsch DL. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia and other conditions. Insert: Giordano, James. Illustrating how CES works. Natural Medicine. 2006; 23: 118-120.
99. Kirsch DL. Why electromedicine? Practical Pain Management. 2006; 6(5): 52-54.
100.Gilula MF and Kirsch DL. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation review: a safer alternative to psychopharmaceuticals in the treatment of depression.
Journal of Neurotherapy. 2005; 9(2): 7-26.
101.Gilula MF and Barach PR. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: a safe neuromedical treatment for anxiety, depression or insomnia. Southern
Medical Journal. 2004; 97(12): 1269-1270.
102.Kirsch DL and Smith R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, depression, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and pain. Chapter 44 in
Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Paul J. Rosch, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004; 727-740.
103.Kirsch DL. The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (2nd Ed), Medical Scope Publishing Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada, 2002.
104.Thuile C and Kirsch DL. Schmerzen lindern ohne Chemie CES, die Revolution in der Schmerztherapie. Internationale Ärztegesellschaft für Energiemedizin, Austria, 2000 (in German).
105.Mercola JM and Kirsch DL. The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy in conventional medical practice. Journal of Advancement in Medicine. 1995; 8(2): 107-120.


102.Kirsch DL. Electromedical treatment of headaches. Practical Pain Management. 2006; 6(8): 58-65.
103.Kirsch DL. Microcurrent electrical therapy (MET): A tutorial. Practical Pain Management. 2006; 6(7): 59-64.
104.Kirsch DL. A practical protocol for electromedical treatment of pain. Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 2002; 759-776.
105.Kirsch DL. Electromedicine: the other side of physiology. Chapter 60 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 2002; 749-758.
106.Kirsch DL. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation, a practical protocol for the treatment of pain. Practical Pain Management. 2001; 2(3): 34-37.
Full Disclosure of All Alpha-Stim Studies With Negative or Indeterminate Outcomes